How to Calculate GDP using the Income Approach

How to Calculate GDP Using the Income Approach

GDP is defined as the market value of all final goods and services produced within an economy over a specific period (usually one year). There are two primary methods to calculate GDP: the income approach and the expenditure approach (see also Gross Domestic Product). According to the income approach, GDP […]

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How to Calculate GDP using the Expenditure Approach

How to Calculate GDP Using the Expenditure Approach

GDP describes the monetary value of all final goods and services produced within an economy over a specific period (usually one year). There are two main methods to calculate GDP: the expenditure approach, and the income approach (see also Gross Domestic Product). According to the expenditure approach, GDP can be […]

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Three Types of Inflation

Three Types of Inflation

Inflation describes an increase in the overall price level of goods and services within an economy over a certain period. As a consequence, the purchasing power of money decreases, which means the money essentially loses some of its value. Thus, inflation has an impact on the cost of living and […]

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Three Types of Tax Systems

Three Types of Tax Systems

Taxes are one of the most controversial topics in economics. While most people agree that they are necessary, there is a lot of disagreement over how the tax burden should be distributed across the population. Nowadays, most taxes are designed according to what we call the ability-to-pay principle. This principle […]

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Three Government Policies towards Externalities

Three Government Policies Towards Externalities

Negative externalities often cause markets to fail, i.e. to reach an inefficient outcome for society as a whole. When that happens, the government can respond in one of two ways. It can use command-and-control policies to directly regulate problematic behavior, or it can use market-based policies to provide incentives that […]

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World's Top 10 Economies by Imports

World’s Top 10 Economies by Imports

In our globalized economy international trade is one of the most critical drivers of economic growth. While virtually all countries engage in international trade, some of them are more active than others. We have already created a list of the world’s top 10 countries by exports a while ago.  But for […]

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World's top 10 Economies by Exports

The World’s Top 10 Economies by Exports

International trade is one of the most important drivers of economic growth. Most countries export a significant share of the goods and services they produce to other countries. These exports are extremely important, because they have a direct impact on economic growth, employment, and the standard of living within the […]

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Limitations of the Consumer Price Index (CPI)

Limitations of the Consumer Price Index (CPI)

The consumer price index (CPI) is a measure of the overall price level of goods and services bought by a typical consumer in a particular economy.  Its goal is to measure the cost of living and show the effects of inflation on individual consumers. However, like most indicators, the CPI […]

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What is the Gini Index

What is the Gini Index?

The Gini index (i.e. the Gini coefficient) is a statistical measure of distribution, developed by Corrado Gini in 1912. In an economic context it is commonly used as an index of economic inequality that measures income or wealth distribution among the population. The index ranges from 0 to 1, although […]

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World's Top 10 Economies by Per Capita GDP

The World’s Top 10 Economies by Per Capita GDP

GDP is without a doubt one of the most common measures of economic strength. It is used by economists and policy makers to measure and compare the economic power of countries all around the world (see also Gross Domestic Product). In an earlier article we have created a list of […]

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