Four Properties of Indifference Curves

Four Properties of Indifference Curves

Indifference curves are graphs that represent various combinations of two commodities which an individual considers equally valuable. The axes of those graphs represent one commodity each (e.g. good A and good B). Indifference curves are widely used in microeconomics to analyze consumer preferences, the effects of subsidies and taxes, and a few other concepts. […]

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The Prisoner’s Dilemma

The prisoner’s dilemma is arguably the most famous example of game theory. It describes a situation (i.e. game) between two prisoners, who act in their own self-interest, which results in an inefficient outcome for both of them. In essence, the prisoner’s dilemma illustrates why it can be difficult to maintain cooperation […]

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The Coase Theorem

The Coase Theorem (named after the British economist Ronald Coase) is a famous theorem that addresses the question of how effectively private markets can deal with externalities. In essence, it states that private parties can solve the problem of externalities on their own, if they can bargain over the allocation of […]

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Comparative Advantage and Trade

We live in a globalized world where virtually all countries interact and engage in trade. Most of them have various trade connections with a multitude of different countries. As a consequence, there is a significant amount of competition. This raises the question how smaller countries with relatively weak economies can […]

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